The capital of Adygeya
Maykop is situated at the foot of Western spurs of Chief Caucasian range, on the right bank of Belaya River, flowing to Cuban River. Its name the town got from the Adygeyan word "Myekuape" that can be translated as "settlement in the mouth of a river, flowing through the valley of apple trees". It's one of the version of its name.
Maykop was founded as Cossack fortress on the 25th of May, 1857. That's why accoding to another version the name of the town was formed from the words: "digged in May". In this case the name of the town is connected with the historical events, putting of Maykop fortication.
At the end of sixtyth of the 19th century the first small industrial enterprises appeared - water-mill, oil- mill, pottery, brickworks, tannery, soap-works. The fortress became a stanitsa, and on the 24th of December, 1870 - Maykop became a town. It got 6150 dessiatinas of land, 4.000 of dessiatinas were occupied with forest.
That period of time different enterprises were forming, such as: taitory, shoe, coopery, carriage, joinery, carpentry, forge shop, metal work, saddler's furriery, waxen, glue - boiling and others, in whole - 570 enterprises. Today in the republican centre there are more than 1200 enterprises of different braches of industry and forms of property.
Maykop is wide well-known among archaeologists. In 1897 in Maykop under the leadership of the professor of St. Petersburg University H. I. veselovsky several burial mounds were digged out and investigated and among them the famous Maykopsky burial mound "Oshad". It is monument of world meaning, situated in the eastern part of the town. In this burial mound many things from gold and silver were found out of Scyths-Sarmats period. They showed a high level of culture of those peoples. Today these things are in the collection "Cuban Gold" in Hermitage.
At the end of the 19th century and at the begining of the 20th century new factories and plants were opened. They were: tobacco factory of Nazarov and Sergeev, brewery of Chibiev and Tavara, foundry of Russian monopoly. In 1910 - 1911, a young engineer, future academician I. M. Gubkin opened rich deposits of oil in the region of Maykop. The new braches of industry began to develop.
In 1910 the organization of town telephone stafion was completed. The new roads Maykop - Belorechenskaya and Maykop - Tuapse were built. December, the 12th, 1910 to Maykop the first train came from the station Belorechenskaya. In 1911 the building of town water-pipe was finished.
Changes in social and economic life of Maykop brought to the development of education and cullure. September, the 1st, 1892 Maykopskoe high school was opened and June, the 1st, 1900 Alexandrovskoe technical high school was opened (today there is secondary school № 5 in this building.) On progressive people's initiative the town library was opened in 1895. The 100th anniversary of this library we marked in 1995. The great event in the cultural life of our town was the opening of Pushkin Public House It was opened in honour of the 100th anniversary of Pushkin's birthday.
At the begining of the 20th century two cinemas worked, and several newspapers were published. "Maykopsky News", "Maykopsky Life", "Maykopsky Echo". In 1915 in Maykop Teachers' Training Institute was opened. It prepared teachers of elementary schools for Cuban oblast.
In 1918, after the Great October Socialist Revolution, the Soviet power was established. On the 27th of July, 1922 Adygh (Circassian) Autonomous Region was established by the resoluflon of the Government of Russian Federation, with the centre in town Krasnodar. In 1939 Maykop became the capital of Adygh Autonomous Region. Today Maykop has a population of 178,6 thousand people. It is a member of the Unity of Russian towns, anol the Association of the towns of South of Russia. In 1999 and 2001 it became one of the winners of the competition "The Most Comfortable Town of Russia".
It is a large cultural, scientific and educated centre. Priority in the development of education is a good teaching with due regard for national and cultural pecularities, cognitive interests of young people. The new technologies of deer studies in high classical schools and Lyceums take part in our town. The system of upbringing with the help of Slav and Adygh cultures, the association of innovational schools are formed in the republic.
The programme "The exceptional children" is elaborated here. There are many subjects competitions, olympiads, scientific conferences, scientific labolatoris in this programme. This work is hold with the help of State Adygh University and Technology Institute. Summer rest of students and pupils is organized as festivals of arts of peoples of Northern Caucasus, as itellectual schools of yonng mathimaticans, biologists, phsycologists, philologists from Maykop, Krasnodar, Rostov-on-Don, St. Petersburg.
There are more than 40 medical establihments in Maykop. They provide epidemiological prosperity, guarding mothers and children, rendering the first medical helping. At the policlinics there are centres of rehabilitation, family outpatients' departments, day stationaries, and stationaries at home. At the town hospital the centre with modern eguipment for diagnostics of heartvascular pathology was opened. More them 50 Houses of Culture, clubs and libraries work in Maykop. Professional art is represented with drama theatres, vocal and dance and instrumental collectives of the republic Philharmonic Society.
Often people come to the Picture Gallery and to the branch of State Museum of Art of Peoples of East to see new and interesting exibitions. People of different ages and interests gather together in 20 clubs of Town House of Culture. Here they can see new films, and children, invalids and veterans of war and labour can see films free of charge.
Talented young people suitably present our republic at international festivals, competitions and reviews. Among young pionists, artists, singers, dancers there are laureates of the competitions in Poland, Germany, Japan, Turkey. Festivals of children's art help the development of multinational culture of Maykop.
Brief history of Maykop
Maykop is located at the North foothills of the Caucasus range on the right bank of the Belaya River (the feeder of the Kuban River). The city's name comes from the Adygei word "Miekuape" - the valley of crabs.
The city was founded on May 25, 1857. By the end of sixties in the 19th century
Maykop lost the status of fortress. By that time small artisan undertakings appeared. On December 24, 1870, Maykop was transformed from stanitsa into city. The city got a hideland of 6150 dessiatinas, and 4000 were occupied with forests.
There are 67 archaeological monuments on the territory of Maykop. In 1897 Maykop became world-famous after excavations and investigations of several burial mounds under the direction of Professor N.I. Veselovsky.
Among the burial mounds was famous Maykop kurgan "Oshad"- a monument of world-wide importance that gave its name to a culture of 4000 B.C. During the excavations a burial of the ancient ruler was found. It was decorated with a lot of silver and gold things relating to 4000 B.C., argumentative of high level of culture development. The main symbol of that age is bull figure with a vertical hole made of gold, specialists consider it to be one of the oldest jewelry in the world. The picture of the bull's head is on the Coat of Arms of Maykop. Today, the findings can be seen in "Kuban's gold", situated in the Hermitage.
In 7th - 10th centuries AD., the trade line of the Silk Route passed through the territory of Maykop suburbs, which later was revived in the late Middle Ages, on the so-called Genoese trade route in 1266 - 1457.
At the close of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century the city saw rise of factory-and-works enterprises.
In 1909 academician M.M. Gubkin discovered oilfields near Maykop, and it played a large part in economic development of the city.
Today Maykop is the capital of the Republic of Adygeya, large economic and cultural centre, well-known in the region, in the South of Russia and in the Russian Federation.
There are 175,4 thousand people in Maykop. Sixty percent of the republic's industrial complexes are concentrated in the capital.
The positive movement of growth rate of commercial production retains stable. The economy of the city is diversified. More than 1200 enterprises of different forms of property work in the city including 6 public, 58 municipal, 1 10 corporate and about 1000 privately owned. There are 5 business banks, 4 Moscow and Krasnodar business bank branches, Adygei Bank of Savings Bank of Russia and National Bank of the Republic of Adygeya.
The main industries are: food, woodworking, pulp and paper, mechanical engineering, metal working and light industry.
The output produced by industrial enterprises of the city is well-known in many regions of the country, "near abroad" and in foreign countries: parallel-shaft reduction gear units of different modification produced by Maykop Reducers Plant JSC, metal-cutting equipment and woodworkers produced by Maykop Machine-Tool plant "Frunze" JSC, manipulators and other equipment for timber cutting produces "Mashzavod" JSC. "Kartontara" closed joint-stock company produces more than 40 tones of containerboard and packaged cardboard and 20 thousand tones of semichemical pulp every year. Food industry of the city produces a wide range of confectionery, meat and milk foods, canned fruit and vegetable.
Cheese 'Adygeiskij sir", sausage "Maykopskaja", candy and mineral water enjoy wide popularity. More than 1000 small-scale enterprises work in the city, 44 percent of them in commerce and catering, 25 percent in industry and 1 2 percent in building.
Close contacts between the regions of Russian Federation and foreign countries help the city to strengthen economic potential and to saturate consumer market with manufactured goods and foodstuffs. Maykop concluded association agreements with Krasnodar and with Chankai municipality of Ankara (Turkey), is a member of Alliance of Russian cities and is a part of the Association of South Russian cities.
Maykop is considered to be the city of young people and students. There are 32 schools of general education. More than 25 thousand of young people are students of Adyghe State University, Maykop State Technological University, of two colleges, four branches of the institutes and five trade schools.
There are 48 preschool institutions in the city. The number of preschool institutions for poor health children is expanded. The rehabilitation training center for handicapped children is created.
The system of additional education is represented by: children's creative work center; tourism center for children and teenagers; two sports schools for children and teenagers, one of them is a school of Olympic reserve.
Hundreds of schoolboys and schoolgirls from Maykop, Krasnodar, Rostov-on-Don and St. Petersburg have a rest and study at summer intellectual school of young mathematicians, biologist, psychologist and literati. There are 56 cultural institutions in the city, including eight culture and club houses and City Park.
The professional art is represented by three theatres, by Philharmonic Society of the Republic, by The State Academic Ensemble of Folk Dance of Adygeya "Nalmes" and The State Ensemble "Islamei" and by the republican philharmonic orchestra and orchestra of Russian national instruments.
There are picture-gallery, museum of local lore, a branch of the museum of East Art and 17 libraries in the city.
The organization of writers had been existed for 60 years in Maykop and later was changed into Union of writers of Republic of Adygeya.
The works of Adighey writers Iskhak Mashbash and Tembot Kerashev, the State Prize laureates, are known beyond the bounds of the Republic. The Union of Composers of the Republic of Adygeya has been working since November 1992. There are ten memorial tablets bearing the names of the writers, poets and artists on the buildings of the city. Four streets of the city are named after them. Two composers and two writers are referred to freemen.
The city has two movie theatres and eight cinema units.
Maykop takes a worthy place in the sports of Russia. Vladimir Nevzoroy - the first Olympic champion among the Soviet judoists, Khazret "Tleeceri - the first champion of the world, the fourfold champion of the Europe, the twice champion of an intercontinental cup on a judo, Sergey Alifirenko - the Olympic champion on shooting, the wrestlers and Honored masters of sports Arambij Khapaj, Vladimir Gurin, Abram Agamerjan - reiterated champions of the world and of the Europe glorified the capital of Adigheya. Murat Khasanov, the 11-fold world champion on sambo-wrestling in heavy weight, became a real sports legend.
More than 30 thousand people are engaged in sports sections by 24 kinds of sports and 300 groups of sport sanitary orientation. There are 12 children's teenage sports clubs domiciliary and more than 5 thousand people attend them.
There are also three professional sports clubs, they are: football team of first league masters "Friendship", female handball team of the major league masters Adijf, a man's basketball team of first league masters "Dynamo". Eight children's youthful sports schools function in the city. And there is the only Institute of physical training and judo in Russia which is a part of Adyghe State University. It was established by Rector Jakub Kamboletovich Koblev, the honored trainer of the USSR, the professor, the doctor of pedagogical sciences.
There are 40 medical institutions in the city.
A city clinical hospital has a fault-finding center with modern equipment for diagnostics of a cardio-vascular pathology.
There are mainly representatives of two faiths in Maykop - Christian and Muslim. Their pastors set an example how the believers should coexist. They do a lot to strengthen peace-ableness, kind-heartedness and high moral principles in people's soul. There are center of Maykop and Adighey eparchy, religious department of Muslims of the Republic of Adygeya and the Krasnodar territory, eight orthodox temples and a mosque in Maykop.
Seventeen agricultural enterprises of various forms of ownership and 120 peasant farms work in Maykop.
The city provides itself with more than 70 percent of ecologically clean agricultural products.
Battery farms, which produce more than 40 million eggs and more than three thousand tons of fowl a year, contribute significantly to food supply of the townspeople and inhabitants of the republic.
The existing stud farm and the State factory stable provide race tracks of Russia with excellent racers, and the agricultural enterprises provide with pedigree livestock and horses.
Today Maykop is one of the most ecologically clean and green cities of Northern Caucasus. It is developing tourism, actively involving the investments and is opened for visitors of Adygeya. The city was included into recently created Association "Gold arch of Southern motor tourism".