The Republic Of Adygeya
Adygeya, a young subject of Russia, became a republic in 1991. It has got its name after the adyghs, one of the oldest nations of Caucasus. Adyghs got their first recognition and autonomy in 1922.
On the 27th of July Adygh (Circassian) autonomous region was established by the resolution of Government of Russian Federation, Circassian autonomous region was the part of the Krasnodar region for more than 50 years.
Mountain peoples as well as adyghs followed the historical way that was equal to centures for the short period of time. The Great October gave it a powerful acceleration to all spheres of life from economics to culture. The Adygh autonomous region was the 1st from national regions of Russia that finished with illiteracy, the peasants were the 1st in Russia who completed the collectivization of agriculture, the workers created the enterprises of food and processing industries, machine, machine-tool, wood-working industries.
In the 20th century Adygeya made a great jump from domestic to big industrial production, from small agricultural farms to agroindustrial complex, from ABC book to novels, from folk-lore to professional art, from the 1st village elementary schools to Lyceums, secondary schools, colleges, Institutes, Univercities, from the 1st sport sections to the teams of masters of sports and Olympic champions.
The Republic of Adygeya is a presidential republic. The Head of the Government is the President who is elected for the period of five years by popular vote by secret ballot. The President has the right to form the Ministers' Cabinet of the Republic of Adygeya which is the executive organ of Government. Prime Minister is appointed by the President with the consent of State Council-Khase of the Republic of Adygeya. The first deputy corps was elected by the Supreme Counsil of the Republic in 1992. In 1993 the Supreme Counsil was reorganized into the State Counsil-Khase. In 2001 the first elections of two-chamber organ of power, that is Republic Council and Council of Representatives, were held.
The First President of Adygeya, Asian Dzharimov, was elected in 1991. In 1997 he was reelected by the population of the republic.
He deserved confidence as a politician famous for his peacemaking, creative activity, as a leader of the Republic, in which in spite of the difficulties of the whole country, it keeps stability, civil peace and international consent, economics revives, science, education, art, culture and sport are developing.
The first Parliament of the republic asserted the main state attributes: flag, anthem, coat of arms, law base. In 1995 the Constitution of the Republic of Adygeya was adopted.
As a result of status advancement, the Republic of Adygeya has got an independence as a subject of Russian Federation. This fact doesn't mean that Adygeya has lost or lessened economic, political and trade connections with Russia and its regions.
Adygeya is a member of Association of social and economic collaboration of republics, regions and districts of the North Caucasus. It has got economic, social and cultural relationships with Moscow, Krasnodar region, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Karachaevo-Circassia, Dagestan, Ingushetia and North Osetia. Many enterprises and organizations of our repuplic are represented at the world market.
Adygeya is situated on the picture sque slopes of the North-West of the Caucasus. Its area is about 7800 sguare kilometers with population of about 450 thousand people of more that 80 nationalities. The main and most ethnic group are Russians and Adyghs. The density of population is about 57 people per square km - one of the highest in Russia. The republic consists of two towns, seven regions and five settlements, 55 village and settle districts. The number of able-bodied compiles 250 thousand people, and of pensioners - 125 thousand people.
The Republic of Adygeya is situated within the Krasnodar region and has no borders with other subjects of Federation. The capital of the Republic is Maykop, Maykop is 1670 km distant from Moscow and 160 km from Krasnodar. The nearest ports are Tuapse (150 km) and Novorossjisk (270 km).
There are railway lines, motor ways and airlines to Moscow and to some countries abroad. International airport <Hanskiy>, executed flights to Moscow, Armenia, Turkey and Syria.
Local trains take passengers to the junction station Belorechenskaya, to the coast of the Black Sea - Tuapse, Sochi, Adler and to the foothills of Caucasus Mountains - to the station <Khadzhokh>. In summer passanger train connects Maykop with Moscow.
Adygeya is a member of Association of social and economic collaboration of republics, regions and districts of South of Russia named <Northern Caucasus>. In 2001 the President of Adygeya Aslan Dzarimov, Doctor of economic sciences was elected the Chairman of the Cousil of Association. Several years ago our republic proclaimed that only mobilization of home reserves, aspiration for self maintenance allowed it to get over crisis. Using its own capabilities was the right way in difficult economic situation. This way was the right way for Adygeya. Its economics, as well as economics of Russia, endured difficult crisis. And in 2000 year it became the second in growth target of industrial production.
Adygeya was the second in Russia in growth of physical industrial production index during 1999 and the first among the subjects of Northern Caucasus area. A tendency of stabilization is in progress today. The products of our republic can compete with the products of many firms of Russia. At the exhibition <The Best Food Production 2000> all the assortment of products got prizes.
Agriculture taking the place of priority development in economics of the Republic of Adygeya has undergone changes concerning the methods of management, industrial engineering and priority right.
In jubilee 2001 year, when the republic celebrated its the 10th anniversary it declared itself as a region with prospects of economic cooperation taking part at the All-Russian and international exhibitions and fairs. At the exhibition-presentation <Russian Regions on the Eve of XXI Century>, which took place in Moscow in June, 2001 at the All-Russian Exhibition Center, the enterprises of Adygeya presented a broad assortment of products, the quality and external design of which are competitive with the best foreign analogues. At the exhibition the republic demonstrated the achievement in producing of consumer goods, developing of agricultural complex, the potentialities of interregional integration, the evolution of multinational culture and attractiveness of the republic for the tourists. The products of Adygeya got 14 gold and 10 silver medals.
The deliveries of preserved products are made through Trade House "Adygeya" which has being presented the goods of the republic in Moscow and North of Russia. The range of foodstuffs has more than 900 items.
Today in the republic near 90 big and small enterprises work, they represent 11 branches. The main branch in the republic is food industry, its part in general volume of production is 50%.
Factories of food industry produce meat and fruit vegetable cannery, confectionery, paste, wine, deer and dairy products. Stock companies "Cannery" Adygeisk, "Fabmay", "Maykop Confectionery Factory" produce products of the highest quality that are much in demand not only in Adygeya but in Russia and abroad.
Great are the timber resources of Adygeya, which are represented, mainly, by hard-wood conifers. The general wood-stock is about 42 million cubic meters, including 23 million cubic meters of riped and overstanded. Timber industry is one of the last developing branches. Rating of dominant wood-cutting area is 103,7 thousand cubic metres, of minor area - 92,4 thousand cubic meters a year. A lot of products manufactured in the republic are exported abroad. They are products of machinery construction, woodworking and light industry factories. Some prospective factories, are established in the republic.
Agricultural products are produced by 1,5 thousand holdings of different types: joint-stock companies, associations, state farms. The own area is about 200 thousand hectares and allows to produce 500 thousand tons of grain, about 40 tons of vegetables and about 190 thousand tons of sugar-beet. In 2001 crops yield of grain has reached 350 thousand tons. Agriculture is one of dominant sectors of economical development.
More that 4,500 families are engaged in gardening on the area of about 2700 ha, 28,0 thousand families are engaged in kitchen gardening on the area of about 3000 ha, 53,0 thousand people became the land shareholders.
Such branches of industry as stock - breeding, poultry-farming and fishery are highly developed. The region has got all conditions for stock-breeding development and its production can reach high results: milk - 125 tons, meat - 40 thousand tons.
Grain crops, industrial crops and vegetables form the most important part of plant-growing. Here different crops are grown: wheat, oat, maize, rice, rape, sunflower, apples, pear, plum, cherry, grapes and medical plants. Tea is the object of pride. The <northern-east> tea in the world is popular with tea-lovers. The Maykop Plant - growing Station named after N. I. Vavilov is more than 60 years old. Here new sorts and hybrids of fruit and vegetable corps are created. The station possesses one of the biggest fruit crops collection in the world.
Horse-breeding has always been the national pride of Adyghs. This abandoned branch is being revived now, Specialists of the State Stables and Maykop horse-breeding nursery are developing sport horse-breeding. The races are good opportunity to invest money,
Competitive policy in Adygeya is one of the most important Instrumenrs to rule the economic processes, Economy must be able to solve social and economic problems. It should provide conditions for competition and enterprises and must support the producers,
Small business in Adygeya is overcoming its crisis and Is gradually developing. Business provides people with jobs and sates the market with different kinds of goods and services, More that 30% of able-bodied population is in business,
The Republic of Adygeya strives for widening of international economic connections. Organizations and associations have trade - partners in more than 30 countries, including GermanyJurkey, France, Italy, Adygeya exports different kinds of reducing gears, eguipment, rice, cannery, oil-yielding crops and timber, More than 50 organizations work with foreign investors - British, French, Turkish, Syrian companies.
The Republic has got rich resources of minerals. There are deposits of clay, sand, cement, loam, limestone and facing stones. In the entrails of the earth of Adygeya there are more that 50 kinds of minerals, which can be related to 5 basic groups: combustible, metal, unmetal, building and underground waters.
There are 30 prospective projects of gas and oil deposits. That can provide 111 millions tons of fuel increase. The oil-prospective area is about 70% of the Republic's territory, that is 5500 square km. Oil-resources compile 34 million tons.
To develop building and timber branches and oil-gas industry road-building complex should be extended. It will make the transportation of raw minerals and products stable.
Tourism is one of the capacious branches in republic Landscapes of Adygeya allow to found tourist industry. Nowadays the present resorts are full and in spite of this fact the potential is not realized completely. There are a lot of places of interest in republic. Big Azishskaya and Dahovskaya caves, waterfalls, Big Rufabgo canyon attract tourists. Tourism can develop in the following way: hunting and fishing; excursions to the mountains, ski-tracks; health resorts; extreme sports, mountaineering, rafting, mounting-biking; routes "through - the - mountains - to - the - sea", history, customs and traditions of the nation.
Almost forty percents of the republic woods occupy. There is oak, beech, hornbeam, ask-tree, maple, Coucasian fir-tree, Eastern fir-tree, pine in mountains. There is popular, willow, linden, elm in valleys. The mountain woods are especially magnificent and rich, significant part of them is included into the structure of the Caucasian State Biosphere Natural Reserve. The fauna of the republic is different. In its territory 60 kinds of mamalias and about two hundred kinds of birds live. In the mountains the herd of contemporaries mammoth - giants aurochses lives.
The Caucasian noble deers, Cuban aurochses, chamoises, brown bears, lynxes, wild- boars, roes, feel themselves freely here. In snowing highland it is possible to see golden eagle, white-tail eagle and brown griffon. Here there are pheasants, quails, woodcocks, hares, foxes, roes, black otters, goats, wild ducks and pigeons.
Considerable part of the Caucasian State Biosphere Natural Reserve (98 out of 263,5 thausand ha) is situated on the territory of Adygeya. It is surrounded by the restricted area and reserves. At the height of 1500-1700 m over the sea level the grass vegetation changes the trees. Here sub - Alpine and Alpine grassland are spreading. The variety of vegetation in Adygeya constitutes 25 thousand species. All animals life numbers more than 380 vertebral species, 65 of which are very rare not only in Russia but all over the world. More than 340 vegetation species are put into Red Book of Adygeya. As for the animals the following species should be mentioned: Caucasian otter, badger, lynx, mountain aurochs, Caucasian stag, chamois, bear.
In 1999 Adygeya was the Nobel Prize winner in the Field of environment protection. It happened after the Committee of World Nature Heritage of UNESCO decided to put the western Coucasus into the list of the territories under their special protection.
It is the fifth Russian area in the list egually with golden Altai mountains, Kamchatka volcanoes and geysers, wood soft Komi Republic and Baikal Lake. According to the UNESCO Committee decision the territory of more that 300 ha was included into nomination "Western Caucasus". It includes a number of natural parks and monuments of the republic and the large part the Caucasus biosphere reservation. The forest's flora includes 900 species. The relict species constitute 22% and the endemic species constitute 24% of the whole number of species. Mountain meadow's flora has 819 species, more than 300 of which are endemic.
Mainly tourists companies in Adygeya are joinstock companies with state property share. Most of them show preference to active forms of tourism such as: mountain hiking, horse riding, mountain skiing. There are hiking routes over the mountainous part of the republic to the Black Sea and Krasnodar Sea. In the foothills and mountainous part of the republic they can offer a number of excursions to the monuments of nature, history and culture.
In Adygeya there are 20 tourist companies with different forms of organization and rights presenting activities beginning with excursion services and ending in international tours.
Sport tourism is being restored to the life. The republic federation of sports tourism recently reformed together with public tourist organizations prepared and carried out a number of mass competitions.
Every year on the Belaya river near Guzeripl village the Russian Championship on water tourism (canoe-padding) called "Interraley Belay" is held.
In 1999 the first mountain Marathon race "Transkavkaz" from Guzeripl to Dagomys was held. For the lovers of mountain bicycle the route is being worked out. Paraglider - pilots are making themselves familiar with the slopes of Adygeyan mountains. Hiking tours are still popular with sportsmen of Adygeya, Krasnodar, Rostov and Stavropol area Moscow, St. Petersburgh and other region of Russia.
Our republic pays a great attention to the development of education and art. The Adygheisky State Teachers' Training Institute became Adygheisky State University, the new Institute was opened. It is Maykopsky Technological Institute. There are 180 secondary schools, 17 vocational schools, colleges, Lyceums, the School of Slav Culture, the School of Cossack Culture, the Orthodox school, the School of Art. There is National Museum and National Library in Maykop. Russian and Adyghyen theatres, Chamber musical theatre, Russian Folk orchestra "Russian Daring", Choir, State Dance Ensemble of the Republic of Adygeya "Nalmes", State Ensemble of Adygeya folk song "Islamey", Symphony orchestra of the Department of Art of the Republic of Adygeya, children's dance and song ensemble "Kazachata" work today in our republic.
Adygeya is the republic of old history and different cullure. To learn wholly and to estimate the present life, it is necessary to know the past. Our ground keeps monuments about the ancient people, living here. "Roots of their culture and the culture of Adygeyan people are as deep as history itself",- said the founder of Adygeyan literature Tembot Kerashev.
Store houses of the history of these people and Adygeyan people, radical people of ancient ground are tumuluses. They rise proudly above steppes for centures and keep their secrets. Among the most outstanding movements and the most ancient of them are five thousand years old. Each of them is a monument to a domestic history and culture. Many of them are very beautiful, they are opened by archaelogists, many of their exibit are in the Hermitage, but many of them are still waiting for their hour. Unique monuments of history are dolmens. They are of the same age with Egyptian pyramids. On the territory of Adygeya there are near several hundreds of these strange structures. They were built from manytons shone states.
The chimate of the republic is various and changeable. And it is explained by a powerful circuit of mountains and affinity of the Black Sea and Precaspian deserts. But in the whole the chimate is moderate, warm and soft. A spring comes at the end of February and at the beginning of March. Since May till September weather is steady and the eluctuations of temperature are not great. Winter lasts only two months.
Adygeya is rich with mineral and thermometic waters. There are 330 artesian chinks on the territory. The most known is Maykopsky mineral sourse. Its waters are used for treatment of skin, heart-vascular disease, diseases of hervous system, rheumatism, and gastric-intestinal diseases, alimentary canal. On the territory of the republic there are several sanatoriums - dispensaries where mineral waters are used. They are: "Lago-Naki", "Kavkaz", "Kurdzhips", "Lesnaya Skazka", "Shapsug". At the same time about 16 thousand people can treat here.
The Republic of Adygeya has the great possibilities for developing of all branches of economy and their usage. It has good industrial potential, especially in food-processing industry, highly developed agriculture, favourable conditions for evolution of international and local tourism, rich natural resouces and skilled workers. Stable social and political situation also is of great importance for the attraction of investors. Adygeya is worthy to be called the calmest region the Northern Caucasus.
Adygeya is always opened for its friends. We are always glad for visitors!
Welcome to Adygeya!